I have drawn on both ancient and modern authors and historians to try and create an image of the ancient Mediterranean world as the ancients saw it. Among the ancient sources are, in alphabetical order:

AESCHYLUS: The Persians. Trans. Philip Vellacott, 1961.

AESCHYLUS: Seven Against Thebes. Trans. Philip Vellacott, 1961.

ARISTOPHANES: The Frogs. Trans. David Barrett, 1964.

ARISTOTLE: The Athenian Constitution. Trans. J. Rhodes, 1984.

ARRIAN: The Campaigns of Alexander. Trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt, 1958.

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS: Roman Antiquities. Loeb Series. Trans. E. Cary, 1950.

HERODOTUS: The Histories. Trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt, 1954.

HOMER: The Iliad. Trans. E. V. Rieu, 1950.

HOMER: The Odyssey. Trans. E. V. Rieu, 1946.

LIVY: The History of Rome from Its Foundation. Books I–V, trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt,

1960. Books VI–X, trans. Betty Radice, 1982. Books XI–XXX, trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt,

1965. Books XXXI–XLV, trans. Henry Bettenson, 1976.

PLATO: The Republic. Trans. Desmond Lee, 1955.

PLUTARCH: The Parallel Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans. The lives of (in

chronological order): Solon, Themistocles, Pericles, Alcibiades, Lysander, and Flaminius,

trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert, 1960. The lives of: Agesilaus, Pelopidas, Timoleon, Demosthenes,

Phocion, Alexander, Demetrius, and Pyrrhus, trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert, 1973.

PLUTARCH: Plutarch on Sparta. Trans. Richard Talbert, 1988.

POLYBIUS: The Rise of the Roman Empire. Trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert, 1979.

QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS: The History of Alexander. Trans. John Yardley, 1984.

SOPHOCLES: The Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus. Trans.

Robert Fagles, 1982.

THUCYDIDES: The History of the Peloponnesian War. Trans. Rex Warner, 1954.

XENOPHON: A History of My Times. Trans. Rex Warner, 1966.

XENOPHON: The Persian Expedition. Trans. Rex Warner, 1949.

Then there were the modern sources. These are the historians whom I have come to admire as my teachers. Some of their inspired teaching has made its way into the text.

In particular, I have drawn on their wisdom with regard to Alexander’s goals and ideals, and the interpretation of his influence on the history of the world.General Fuller provided the great summary regarding Alexander’s legacy, drawing on the contributions of both ancient and modern historians.

Mr. Garoufalias brought a great intellect to the study of the life of Pyrrhus. I am indebted to

him for a wealth of period detail.

I am grateful to Sir John Boardman for his kind suggestions for the cover image.

PROFESSOR SIR JOHN BOARDMAN: Greek Art. Revised edition, 1996.

J. B. BURY AND RUSSELL MEIGGS: A History of Greece, 1975.

MICHAEL CRAWFORD: The Roman Republic, 1992.

GENERAL J. F. C. FULLER: The Decisive Battles of the Western World, 1954.

GENERAL J. F. C. FULLER: The Generalship of Alexander the Great, 1960.

JANICE J. GABBERT: Antigonus Gonatus. 1997.

PETROS GAROUFALIAS: Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, 1979 (English translation).

EDWARD GIBBON: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Ed. Oliver Smeaton, 1910.

ROBERT GRAVES: The Greek Myths, vols. 1 and 2. Revised edition, 1960.

PIERRE JOUGUET: Foreword to Macedonian Imperialism and the Hellenization of the East, 1928.

J. P. MAHAFFEY: A History of Egypt under the Macedonian Dynasty, 1899.

DR. W. W.TARN: Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind, 1932.

ULRICH WILCKEN: Alexander the Great, 1932.

F. A.WRIGHT: Alexander the Great, 1934.